Monday, September 29, 2008

Yassin and Tahlil

My younger sister from a different mother (yes bapak kawin dua maa) is inviting my family to buka puasa at her house and then she said she wanted to have bacaan yassin and do tahlil for all the dead of our family including her mom, mine and her husband side.

It was 6.00pm , when my closest friend and neighbor ask my permission to lend her my youngest daughter, 1st thing that crossed my mind is, no way man, we are going to have family gathering, but seeing her swollen face after a hard crying and the reason why that i do not know off, i changed my mine immediately, not to go against my husband wishes, i ask my husband permission too, it looks both of us do not have the heart to disappoint her... my daughter has been invited on so many occasion with other family too...

We reached her house that is about 6 km from my house on time, the dawn azan has started but to wait for my weak father to climb out the car and ushered him we took another five minutes.

All my siblings are there, wow, it has been so longed that 6 of us are together. My eldest sister shed a tear saying mom will love this and keep whispering to my ear..did you see mom, yes oh yes i do see her my my a lot of things that remind me of her..

I placed father in the guest room, let him lie down so we can proceed the berbuka puasa, solat maghrib, light food again, and yassin and tahlil...his gastric attack..I do not have the heart to ask him to keep fasting..

The prayer of maghrib managed to flow smoothly. That evening, there was no sarcastic remarks pass to one another, except some 1st class stupid questions that was thrown to me. Being sporting I answers with humor but keep away my sarcastic answer ..I am known..and labelled the most famous sister who do not answer without getting back at somesone.

My husband was proud that I have changed for now. he he..

It was a special moment because 6 of us and our family except Aida...managed to be together after how long that I could not remember.

Chow for now..

Sunday, September 28, 2008


..trying hard to conceal the frustration cannot balik kampung..i decided to buy new langsir for the sliding door has been 3 years i have been using the old curtain..."ayang can we go to kamdar today" husband did not was still i tidy the house the best i could..."mama..kereta tak boleh start"..battery nak kena tukar lah maa.."..i just stood still ...try again he did...after half an hour.."ma..battery betul dah kong"..dah 3 tahun pun nyawa battery ni ma"...

ayang..we take the motor lah.."so we did..we went through the langsir and I fall in love with one lavender colour.."our colour" ..200 above...

" ingat kita pakai jer lah langsir lama...kita beli we did....with the battery we can ronda roda kl...or we can go to istana this year..boleh kan yang.." my does not have to ask..he knew i will be sensible enough to make a right decision...

petang 28 ramadhan..

Saturday, September 27, 2008


why do i have this feeling slowly creeping into my skin...not wanting to see people..i am suppose to be very excited when there is the occassion of masak dodol with the 5 siblings (so called) we are 5 neighbors that had became family...

i cant face them with this sour look..i cannot hide my emptiness infront of them..i am the comedian who will always crack a joke and it always been me that they are fond of since the only working woman aka wife in the group...that barely can spend any time with them..

i need to pour all the sourness here before stepping out from this house with a pot of met them in a while..

may god fill me with happiness before i step into their me from all the questions later from them..i really cant take that from any of them..i might burst into tears..

chow for now...28th Ramadhan night..


three days to aidil fitri, should i have joy should i be happy, my children seems so helpless cause this year we are not going to balik kampung, my eldest daughter tried her best to understand but the reason why we not going to balik kampung make her hate my family..,,no one wants to take turn to take care of my old and sick father...

my husband...i will sacrifice anything for you love..what else can I ask..a new langsir..forget it..since he has never ever not balik kampung during aidil fitri..this is his first...

my youngest is still persuading me to balik kampung..she is too young to i blame it to my preparation on the exam...

today i managed to clean the living but not to the fullest.. when your heart not at it just not at it

my eldest ask ma what are we going to do doing the first day of hari raya....without second thoughts i said..we are going to istana..first time we are going to celebrate with the agung who is also cannot balik kampung because to entertain us the rakyat first..she giggles..she knew i was are we going to get any visitor since this whole taman has left to balik visitors ..i am going to hang a poster at the gate saying..we balik kampung please have a lookout on our house...she giggles again..mum you must be mad...mad people should buka that is my turn to laugh...

Eidul Fitri @ Aidil Fitri

kau datang dengan perlahan
tinggalkan kehebatan ramadhan
ditanganmu hilangkan kemungkinan
penyesalan yang lepas tinggal kenangan

apakah ramadhan tinggal kenangan
sedangkan ia baru semalam
sambutan dalam keghairahan
tenggelam punca menjadi pilihan

kalau nafsu di ikat sebulan
mengapa di lempar tak ketahuan
dalam ramadan insaf tak bersempadan
eidul fitri peluang melupakan

Monday, September 22, 2008



- Measurement of results against established objectives set during the planning process
- The systematic assessment of a program & its result
- Basic evaluation questions that any PR practitioner should ask:

1)Was the activity/ program adequately planned?

2)Did recipients of the message understand it?

3)How could the program strategy have been more effective?

4) Were all primary & secondary audiences reached?

5) Was the desired organizational objective achieved?

6) What unforeseen circumstances affected the success of the program/ activity?

7) Did the program/ activity fall within the budget set for it?

8) What steps can be taken to improve the success of similar future activities?

Measurement & Evaluation

Measurement of Production
-To give management an idea of a staff’s productivity & output by emphasizing on quantity

-To specify what the PR person should accomplish in obtaining media coverage as a tangible criteria for employee performance evaluation

-E.g. count how many news releases, photos, letters are produced in a given period of time

Measurement of Message Exposure
-Measuring by using..

i) Compilation of press clippings & radio- TV mentions
-How many times TV & radio mention about the program
ii) Media impressions/ potential audience reached
-How many people may have been exposed to the message
iii) Hits on the Internet/ website
iv) Advertising equivalency, calculated by converting news stories to cost of a comparable amount of paid space
-Calculate the value of message exposure
v)Systematic tracking by use of computer databases
-Analyze the content of media placements
vi) Requests for additional info through toll- free telephone numbers
-compile the number of requests for the info.
vii) Audience attendance at special events
-Counting attendance at events
-Poor attendance indicate inadequate publicity & promotion
viii) Determining the cost to reach each member of the target audience
-Commonly used in advertisements

Measurement of Audience Awareness
-To evaluate whether the audience became aware of & understood the message by using survey research
-to determine the level whether the audience aware & understand the message

Measurement of Audience Attitudes
-Changes in audience attitude can be evaluated through a baseline study (percentage differences in attitudes & opinions as a result of increased info & publicity)
-Measuring awareness & opinion before, during & after a PR campaign

-Measurement of Audience Action
-To help the organization to achieve its objectives through change in audience behavior whether this involves sales, fund- raising or election of a candidate

- Measurement of Supplemental Activities

i)A yearly audit is necessary to ensure all publics received the appropriate messages; pretesting a PR efforts

ii)Can use a pilot test, a split- message approach, a perception analyzer system or the think- aloud method

Split message approach
-Two or three different appeals may be prepared by an organization & sent to different audiences
-The response rate is then monitored to learn what message & graphics most effective
Perception Analyzer
-Subjects view speeches, public service announcements (PSA) etc.
-PR identify which passages work best or which message strategies are most effective
Think- aloud method
-Comments are collected as the subjects browse the various websites. The comments are then recorded & analyzed

iii)Split message approach
-Two or three different appeals may be prepared by an organization & sent to different audiences
-The response rate is then monitored to learn what message & graphics most effective
Perception Analyzer
-Subjects view speeches, public service announcements (PSA) etc.
-PR identify which passages work best or which message strategies are most effective
Think- aloud method
-Comments are collected as the subjects browse the various websites. The comments are then recorded & analyzed

Meeting & event attendance can be measured both by the number of attendees & by their behavior as an indicator of their acceptance of a message

iv) Newsletter readership can be evaluated by content analysis, readership interest surveys, article recall & advisory boards

Content analysis
-Systematic analysis on the newsletter
-Look at the percentage of the publication
Readership interest surveys
-To get feedback about the types of stories employees are most interested in reading

Article recall
-Individual evaluation of selected articles for accuracy & clarity
Advisory boards
-Periodic feedback & evaluation is done several times a year to discuss the direction & content of the publication



-The goals of the communication process are to inform, persuade, motivate or achieve mutual understanding

-5 possible objectives for a communicator:

1)Message exposure
-PR provides materials in the mass media & disseminate other messages through control media
-Intended audiences are exposed to the message in various forms

2)Accurate dissemination of the message

3) Acceptance of the message
-The audience not only retains the message but accepts it as valid

4) Attitude change
-The audience not only believes the message but makes a verbal or mental commitment to
change behavior as a result of the message

5) Change in overt behavior
-Audience actually change their current behavior or purchase the product & use it


Effective use of Language
-Words are the most common symbols

-The degree to which 2 people understand each other is heavily dependent on their common knowledge of word symbols

-Effectiveness of communication depends on factors (education, social class, cultural background)
-Communication must be clear & simple

Writing for clarity
-The key is to produce messages that match, in content & structure & the characteristics of the audience

-To apply readability & comprehension formulas to materials before they are produced & disseminated

Audience understanding & comprehension can be increased through:

1)Use symbols, acronyms & slogans
Symbols- should be unique, memorable, widely recognized & appropriate
Acronym- a word formed from the initial letters of other words

2) Avoid jargon
-Jargon interferes the message & impedes the receiver’s ability to understand it
-Info must be written in simple terms
-Failure to understand the sudience means a failure in comm.

3)Avoid euphemisms
-An offensive word or phrase that is direct & less distasteful than the one that represents reality

4) Avoid discriminatory language
-PR should eliminate undesirable gender, racial & ethnic connotations

Tactics to communicate
-Employees (e.g. newsletters, magazines, bulletin boards, intranets, e- mail etc.)

-News Media (e.g. news releases, media kits, media advisories, public service announcements, interviews etc.)

-Investors (e.g. newsletters & magazines, letters, annual reports, web sites etc.)

-Customers (e.g. special events, e- mail etc.)

(to be continue on EVALUATION on the next post)

NO. 2 PLANNING of Public Relations process


- Second step in PR process
- Before any PR activity can be implemented, it is important to know in what sequence to
accomplish an organization’s objective
- PR planning should be strategic

Different Kinds of PR Plans

Ad Hoc Plans
-Latin phrase means ‘for this purpose only’
-The plan is important but it’s temporary

Standing Plans
-wise organizations have on- going & long- term plans to nurture relationships

Contingency Plans
-Plans that are used for ‘what if’ scenarios
-Through scanning & monitoring, organizations often spot issues that may require action
-A smart organization prepares a contingency plan to overcome the issue

Elements of a Program Plan

-Valid objectives cannot be set without a clear understanding of the situation that led to the conclusion that a PR program was needed

-3 kinds of situation:
1)The organization must conduct a remedial program to overcome a problem that negatively affect the organization
2) The organization needs to conduct a specific one- time project
3) The organization wants to reinforce an ongoing effort to preserve reputation & public support

-2 kinds:
1)Informational objectives
2)Motivational objectives

-PR programs should be directed toward specific & defined audiences/ publics
-Target specific publics within a ‘general public’

-A strategy statement describes how, in concept, an objective is to be achieved, providing guidelines & themes for overall program
-Should state key themes & messages

-The specific activities that put the strategies into operation & help to achieve the stated objectives
-Involves using the tools of comm. to reach primary & secondary audiences with key messages

1)The timing of a campaign
2)Scheduling of tactics
3)Compiling a calendar

1)Staff time
2)Out- of- pocket (OOP) expenses

-Evaluation criteria should be realistic, credible, specific & in line with client or employer expectations

Why Do We Plan? (Why planning ?)

-To keep actions in line with organization’s values
-To help control destiny
-To help better understand & focus research
- To help achieve consensus
-To allow effective management of resources

(to be continue with no 3 - COMMUNICATION on next posting)


1 Research
2 Planning
3 Communication
4 Evaluation

1 RESEARCH is Fundamental
- Every PR activity begins with analyzing some facts, gathered through research
- Secondary research: making use of facts & data already collected
- Primary research: gathering new info

Cycle of PR Research
1Preliminary research in planning stage
2Research for pre-testing of messages, surveys
3Research for fine- tuning
4Research for final evaluation

Formal vs. Informal Research

Less rigorous & perhaps less pre- testing, but still structured with research designs & protocols
More rigorous and structured ( qualitative or quantitative)

-Generally conducted without rules, procedures that would permit someone to replicate
1) Unobtrusive measures (color- coded tickets to an event)
2) Communication or opinion audits (evaluate response to all of an organization’s communication efforts)
3) Analysis of clippings, transcripts of media coverage

Informal Research Risks

-Validity of sources
-Difficulty of upholding ethical standards
-Leaning too heavily on intuition or experience for making critical decisions

-State the problem
-Select a manageable & measurable portion of the problem to address
- Establish definitions to be used
- Conduct a search in published literature for relevant info
- Develop a hypothesis
- Design the experiment or study
- Obtain the data
- Analyze the data
- Interpret the data to make inferences, generalizations
- Communicate the results

-Describes/ exploratory
-Conducted either in lab or ‘in the field’
-Honesty, confidentiality & objectivity are important values
-Historiography, case studies & diaries
-In- depth interviews
-Focus groups

-Measures by counting
-Conducted either in lab or ‘in the field’
-Honesty, confidentiality & objectivity also are important values
-Survey research

Characteristics of Qualitative & Quantitative Research

-Produce soft data
-Uses open- ended free response with unstructured questions
-Exploratory research
-Valid but not reliable
-Uses non- random samples
-Rarely projectable to large audiences

-Produce hard data
-Uses close- ended questions with forced choice
-Highly structured questions
-Descriptive research
-Valid & reliable
-Uses random samples
-Projectable to large audiences

(No 2 - Planning and other continue in the next posting)


Types of Publics

James Grunig defines four sorts of publics:
1 Non-publics - groups that neither are affected by nor affect the organization and can be ignored
2 Latent publics - groups that face problem as a result of an organisation’s actions, but fail to recognise it.
3 Aware publics – groups that recognise that a problem exists
4 Active publics – groups that do something about the problem

Active Publics

- Can be broke down into three categories:
All-issue publics – active on all issues affecting an organisation
Single-issue publics – active on one issue or a small set of issues
Hot-issue publics – those involved in an issue that has broad public support and usually gets extensive media coverage.

* There are also what Grunig calls: (NOT IN THE FOUR CATEGORY ABOVE)

Apathetic publics – which are basically unconcerned by all problems and are effectively not a public at all

Grunig’s Situational Theory

3 factors that move latent publics to become active publics:

Problem recognition – people won’t think about a situation unless they believe that something needs to be done about it, ie they have problem

Constraint recognition – people perceive that there are constraints on their ability to act in the way they want.

Level of involvement – people see themselves being involved and affected by a situation, thus the more likely they will communicate to others


Models of Public Relations - Grunig’s Public Relations Roles

Models of PR
- Four-model of PR practice presented by Professors James Grunig and Todd Hunt in “Managing Public Relations”
- Used widely to explain how PR has evolved over the years
- The ideal one is the two-way symmetric model

1 Press Agentry
2 Public Information
3 Two- way Asymmetric
4 Two – way Symmetric

1 Press Agentry
- Propaganda is the purpose
- One- way communication but often incomplete, distorted or partially true
- Source ------> Receiver
- Moves one way from organization to its publics
- Oldest form of PR & is synonymous with promotions & publicity
- Communication is viewed as telling
- PR people operating under this model are always looking for opportunities to get their
organization's name favorably mentioned in the media
- Not much research conduct about the publics

2 Public Information
- Dissemination of information
- Source ------> Receiver
- The intent is to inform & the comm. is still one way
- Government, educational institutions and nonprofit associations are primary fields of
practice today
- PR practitioners under this model do very little research do little research about their

3 Two- way Asymmetric
- Scientific persuasion is the purpose
- Employs social science research methods to increase the persuasiveness of messages
- PR practitioners use surveys, interviews, & focus group to measure public relationships
- Two- way comm., with imbalanced effect
- Although feedback is built into the process, the organization much more interested in
having the publics adjust to the organization than the reverse
- Competitive business is the primary places of practice today

4 Two- way Symmetric
- Gaining mutual understanding is the purpose
- Two- way balanced effect
- How the public perceives the organization & to determine what consequences the
organization has for public
- Organizations & their publics adjust to each other
- It focuses on the use of social science research methods to achieve mutual understanding &
two- way comm. Rather than one- way persuasion

The Value of Public Relations (12)


1 PR can open and maintain dialogue between an organization and its publics.
2 PR can encourage mutual adjustment between an organization and its society.
3 PR can focus on the greater good of society, not just the narrow interests of an organization.
4 PR has the opportunity to improve cooperation between an organization and its publics.
5 PR provides useful information.
6 PR can raise issues and concerns, reminding management of ethical responsibilities.
7 PR has the opportunity to improve cooperation between an organization and its publics.
8 PR provides useful information.
9 PR can raise issues and concerns, reminding management of ethical responsibilities.
10 PR helps management formulate and advocate objectives.
11 PR can be a problem solver.
12 PR can uphold socially responsible behavior.

Skills of Public Relations must have - RWCPO

Skills of PR Practitioners
(5) ResearchWritingCommunicationProductionOrganisation (RWCPO)

1 Research skills - gather facts, conduct interview, literature review, content analysis, opinion research, evaluate

2 Writing and editing skills – press releases, reports, speeches, feature articles and etc

3 Communication skills – arranging speeches for the CEO, and coaching

4 Production skills – design and do lay-out of copy, artwork and photographs brochures, annual reports and etc

5 Organisation skills – organising and managing events (conferencs, open houses, launchings, and etc)

(Memorise these)

Public Relations Management Roles

Public Relations Management Roles (8)

Public relations can and should make an important contribution in helping to form an organization's ideas about what it is, what it should do and what its publics want and expect from it.

1 Communication Management
The public relations role that calls for developing communications objectives that are consistent with an organization's overall objectives. As two-way communicators, public relations practitioners interact directly with key publics, relaying the resulting information (with recommendations) to other members of the management team.

2 Crisis Management
Establishing methods and policies to be used when an organization's operations become involved in an emergency affecting the public. This includes policies and procedures for the distribution of information to employees, media, government and other key publics.

3 Issues Management
This involves identifying problems, issues and trends relevant to an organization and then developing and executing a program to deal with them. Included is the study of public policy matters of concern to an organization.

4 Relationship Management
This involves the role of public relations in identifying key publics and establishing strategies for building and maintaining mutually beneficial relationships with those publics.

5 Reputation or Image Management
The planning and implementing of policies, procedures and strategies that demonstrate an organization's commitment to public and social responsibility, ethical behaviour, corporate
identity and reputation with key publics.

6 Resource Management
PR's management of human and financial resources revolves around setting objectives, planning, budgeting, recruiting and hiring PR staff and administering those resources.

7 Risk Management
As preventive PR, this role involves helping an organization recognize areas of potential danger and recommending needed changes before potential dangers develop into crises.

8 Strategic Management
Acting as a counselor, the PR practitioner serves on the management team helping the organization develop sound policies that are in the best interests of the public as well as the organization. The PR practitioner integrates an understanding of the concerns and attitudes of key publics into the organization's managerial decision-making process.

Public Relations Roles and their Specialities

PR Roles and Specialties

•Understand the role and responsibilities of PR.
•Recognize the difference between strategic and tactical PR.
•Appreciate the problem-solving role of PR.
•Understand the link between PR and credibility.

What is public relations?
•Responding to expectations of those who can influence an organization’s operation and
•Harmonizing interests of an organization with those on whom its growth depends
•Serving as intermediary between an organization and all of that organization’s publics

•Distributing information to publics
•Researching all audiences
•Advising management
•Helping to set policies
•Evaluating PR program effectiveness

10 Basic Principles of PR
•PR deals with facts, not fiction.
•PR’s primary consideration is doing what’s in the public interest.
Public interest must be the criterion for selecting PR programs and policies.
•PR must protect the integrity of the media channels it uses for its messages.
•PR involves effective communication back and forth between an organization
and its publics.
•PR depends on use of scientific public opinion research.
•PR practitioners must use the social sciences to understand what publics are
saying and to communicate effectively with them.
•PR requires multidisciplinary application of theories and concepts.
•PR has obligation to explain problems to publics before they become crises.
•PR performance should be measured by only one standard ethical performance.

Activities of Public Relations
•Press agentry
•Public affairs
•Graphic design
•Integrated marketing communication

PR Practitioner’s Job
•More need for depth and diversity of knowledge
•More expectation of accountability
•Less tolerance for hype
•Constants over time: “go-for” attitude, strategic thinking, writing, speaking,
persuading, respecting deadlines, multi-tasking

Main Roles of PR Practitioner
•Staff member in organization
–may be specialist in one area of PR if the organization is large
–likely to be “Jack/Jill of all trades” in a small organization
–technician role at lower levels, managerial role at higher levels

•Employee of PR agency or firm
–may be specialist or generalist depending on size of firm
–also involved in “sales” (generating new business)
–often works as member of team of writers, designers, production staff who together produce a PR message

•Independent practitioner or counselor
–may work on project basis or retainer
–may perform technical tasks for clients
–may serve as counselor to client management

Areas of PR Specialization
•PR for nonprofit organizations (also called NGOs)
•PR for educational institutions
•Fundraising and/or donor relations
•Research and evaluation
•Trend analysis
•Issues management
•PR for international, global organizations
•Financial PR (also called investor relations)
•PR for industrial companies
•PR for general business or retail
•PR for government (at all levels)
•Political PR

•PR for health care organizations
•PR for sports teams
•PR for leisure-time activities

PR: A Profession?

•Body of knowledge
•Commitment to continuing education
•Standard educational curriculum to prepare for entry into profession
•Control over who enters, exits the profession
•Shared code of ethics that guides practice

Societal Roles for PR
•Manipulative Model: Control publics, direct what people think or do to satisfy an
organization’s needs
•Service Model: Respond to publics, react to their needs, desires
•Transactional Model: Achieve mutually beneficial relationships among an
institution and its publics

Self-Described Roles
•PR practitioner as communication technician ( skills oriented)
•PR practitioner as communication facilitator (liaison)
•PR practitioner as problem-solving process facilitator (confrontational)
•PR practitioner as acceptant legitimizer (yes-person)
•PR practitioner as expert prescriber (authoritarian, prescriptive)

Roles Boil Down to 2

•How roles enacted are a function of organization, culture of country, training of

The Value of PR
•PR can open and maintain dialogue between an organization and its publics.
•PR can encourage mutual adjustment between an organization and its society.
•PR can focus on the greater good of society, not just the narrow interests of an
•PR has the opportunity to improve cooperation between an organization and
its publics.
•PR provides useful information.
•PR can raise issues and concerns, reminding management of ethical responsibilities.
•PR helps management formulate and advocate sound objectives.
•PR can be a problem solver.
•PR can uphold socially responsible behavior.

Obstacles to Ideal PR
•Economics: organizations and their managers exist to make money
•Human nature: natural temptation to play up the good, ignore or deny the negative

PR: Finds, Solves, Prevents
•Problems of production
•Problems of growth
•Problems of personnel
•Problems of financing
•Problems of advertising
•Problems of business acceptance

PR: Interprets, Links
•Bridge between organization and publics
• Helps organization, publics adjust to change
•Stimulates positive change
•Enables groups to accommodate to each other

More on Public Relations - Specialized Functions


Public Relations Specialized Functions

Public relations functions are categorized by the publics with which relationships are established and to whom appeals are made to understand and/or accept certain policies, procedures, individuals, causes, products or services. Practitioners who perform specialized functions may play a management role, operate as a communications technician, or function in a dual role.

1 Community Relations

A public relations function consisting of an organization's planned, active and continuing participation with and within a community to maintain and enhance its environment to the benefit of both the organization and the community. This can involve partnerships, volunteer activities, philanthropic contributions and public participation.

2 Employee Relations
Employee Relations Dealing and communicating with the employees of an organization. This can include team building and employee empowerment.

3 Government Relations
Dealing and communicating with legislatures and government agencies on behalf of an organization.

4 Financial Relations
Dealing and communicating with firms and interest groups within the organization's industry.

5 Media Relations
Dealing and communicating with the news media when seeking publicity or responding to reporters' questions. It also involves setting up and maintaining a professional and mutually beneficial working relationship with news gatherers and gatekeepers, in part by becoming known as a credible source and as a provider of factual, expert information whether or not that information results in media coverage.

6 Public Affairs
Dealing and communicating with government and groups with regard to societal (public) policies, action and legislation. Unlike government relations, where the practitioner works strictly on behalf of an organization, public affairs also is concerned with the effect of public policies, actions and legislation on its publics.

Revision - On Public Relations

•Thomas Jefferson combined words “public” and “relations” in 1807
•Dorman Eaton - Yale graduation speaker used the words in 1882
•Words appeared in print in 1897 (Yearbook of Railway Literature)
•Edward Bernays called himself a “public relations counsel” in 1921


4 Ivy Lee’s contributions to PR:
1)Advancing the concept that business & industry should align themselves with the public interest, & not vice versa
2)Dealing with top executives & carrying out no programs unless it had the active support & personal contribution of management
3)Maintaining open communication with the news media
4)Emphasizing the necessity of humanizing business & bringing its PR down to the community level of employees or customers

- Press Agentry (ancient & modern)
- PR grew out of press agentry
- Some aspects of modern PR have the roots of press agentry in the practice
- Development of PR tactics such as publicity, promotion, press agentry

PR Development After Independence Government Public Relations
Public Relations in the Private Sector
1.Public Relations Consultancies
2.Corporate Public Relations Departments

Learning Objectives
1Define public opinion, explain the formation of public opinion, understand the PR functions in public opinion, methods to monitor public opinion, and factors influencing the public opinion
2Define persuasion and explain the persuasion process, users of persuasion, principles in persuasion, and ethics of persuasion
3 Describe the role of media in informing public opinion

James Grunig – Definition of Publics
4 sorts of publics:
1 Non-publics - groups that neither are affected by nor affect the organization and can be ignored
2 Latent publics - groups that face problem as a result of an organisation’s actions, but fail to recognise it.
3 Aware publics – groups that recognise that a problem exists
4 Active publics – groups that do something about the problem

(more posting above on 4types of public)

Final exam in October

Less than a month to final

With this coming celebration (Hari Raya Eidul Fitri), it seems impossible to squeeze time for my studies. Preparation and celebration will take toll of a week of my valuable time allocated for it. If I manage to catch some time I might be collapsing infront of the books and go beserk with my assignments and stress will be climbing up like torpedo.

I am not so sure if it is good for us to sit only one paper this coming 19th October and then crammed our brain with another 3 heavy papers a week after.

Looking at the past years exam questions make me shiver and shivers to attempt to answer, looks like a lot of lookups and reading and research need to be done in this short period and time is very scarce.

I guess, that is the thrill doing part time studies and to balance time with ultimate critical judgment.

I hope again, this semester will give me good results where I had attempted last semester, but my heart is saying the chance is slimmer this time.

Another picture of my baby (during her birthday)

Sunday, September 21, 2008

Hari Jadi Baby yang ke 9 tahun

Dah lama aku tak menyambut hari lahir anakku dengan kawan kawan mereka, tahun ini anakku yang bongsu mohon di belikan kek yang besar supaya dia boleh memanggil beberapa kawan kawan di kerumah selepas berbuka puasa.

Aku mulanya keberatan memandangkan fulus aku cukup untuk buka puasa sahaja, tapi bila suami ku yang sanggup untuk membiayai semuannya aku pun setuju.

Mula mula kami menempah kek butter, sekarang ni kek pun dah mahal, dah lama aku tak menempah kek untuk anak anak aku..terakhir aku ingat 3 tahun lepas ..

Semalam 20 hb harijadinya yang kesembilan...sebelum aku pulang dari library..rupanya kawan nya sudah pun mengemas ruma aku. (sorang anak yatim yang memang rapat dengan anakku walaupun penduduk setaman tak sanggup membenarkan anak yatim ini masuk kerumah mereka takut akan dia yang di katakan tangan panjang)bagi aku , masyarakat lah patut mendidiknya sama bukan menyisih budak 10 tahun yang yatim sejak bayi lagi.

Selepas berbuka puasa, anak yatim itu lah yang pertama datang (Shuhada), seorang lagi sahabat rapat anak aku Shamit (5 tahun) tapi tubuhnya sudah besar sangat, lebih tinggi dari anakku yang sembilan tahun.

Kemudian datang lah berempat lagi, Kassim, Khairul, Alia dan Nana. Kassim ni lembut sikit, umur 11 tahun, Alia kawan rapat Aida walaupun Alia sudah pun 12 tahun dan Nana berumur 8 tahun.

Upacara menghembus lilin tak ku sukai kerana dia tidak ada budaya melayu, tapi di sebabkan anak aku yang hendak sangat meniup lilin ku beri sebatang, selepas tu mereka pun menyanyikan lagu yang calang caling ada yang nyanyi happy birthday to you ada pulak selamat panjang umur ,, tergelak aku dan suami. Tapi tak apa lah Aida gembira sekali.

Mereka makan kek dan minum air pepsi, walaupun lepas buka masih lagi larat makan dua potong kek.

Aku ingin sangat berkongsi apa hadiah yang anakku dapat dari kawan kawannya dari golongan yang sederhana ini, Anak yatim (Shuhada memberi Aida sebuah buku mewarna yang sudah di gunakan dan sudah pun hampir habis menwarnakan gambar gambar dalam buku itu). Cantik warna warnanya. Aida suka juga, Kassim dan Khairul (adik beradik 7 orang) memberi sepasang kasut yang sudah di gunakan dan tak muat lagi buat mereka berwarna merah, cantik tapi saiznya agak besar , Aida mencuba beberapa kali dan cuba menari shafel dengan kasut ini hampir sahaja dia terjatuh di sebabkan oversaiz..tapi Aida amat suka pada kasut ini. Shamit memberi sebuah buku berwarna yang sudah di gunakan juga, tapi Aida masih gembira menerimanya. Nana memberi gambar gambar yang di lukis sendiri dan di warnakan (brilliant idea) gambar gambar ini seperti kad kad kosong di mana kita boleh menulis nota di belakangnya, dan menjadikannya poskad. Hanya Alia sahaja yang memberi hadiah yang belum di gunakan sebuah jam meja. Aku sangat gembira melihat Aida pun gembira, dia tak berkira apa yang di beri kawan kawannya dengan barang barang terpakai. Selepas makan, mereka pun berangkat ke surau untuk mengerjakan solat tarawih.

Aku memberi buku lukisan dan telekung baru, ayahnya memberi selipar berwarna unggu, pengikat rambut unggu, buku nota Disney. Tapi barang barang pemberian kawan kawannya yang terpakai lebih di hargainya. Kerana buku aku masih lagi tersepuk di meja dan barang barang kawannya di angkut masuk ke biliknya.

Cabel aku tertinggal di pejabat, nanti aku uploadkan gambar budak yang bertujuh kemudiah nanti.

22 09

Friday, September 12, 2008

Hari ini

pagi pagi lagi Pang5 hantar aku ke LRT station, aku pun sampai Library Negara baru buka, bulan ramadhan ni di bukanya awal sedikit. 9.00 am - 4.30 pm.

cukup ke masa aku nak menelaah, punya berat lah beg aku sampai 5 buah buku aku usung dari rumah, cukup ke masa nak abih ni...makin gelabah dah aku ni..padan ke muka aku..bersenang senang dulu..berpayah payahlah sekarang...macam burung ayam ayam..laju kesana sini mencarik makan..

kosong..Library Negara..macam tak ada orang..biasalah tingkat 3 tengah tempat favourite aku..dan meja tu pun meja favourite aku..rasanya baru sekali aku datang orang dah chop tempat tu..hanya tuhan jer tahu aku punya kecewa..

aku mula membaca Titas dulu..sebab pagi pagi ni kena baca benda yang mudah nak masuk sikit..inshallah no problem banyak gak yang aku faham..

Library negara ni dah ada wireless..pukul 10.00 baru ada...aku tengok ha..ym aku onkan..ada beberapa kawan sekuliah dah online...

ada lah teman aku..walaupun tak bercakap..tapi dapat orang teman pun dah cukup bagus..

masa aku dah nak jatuh terlelap..cepat cepat aku ke bilik air..cuci muka..kemudian pulang semula ketempat duduk..almaklumlah dah lah puasa..nak cuci dengan kopi mana lah boleh..duduk lah pulun baca..dan cuba perati perati soklan soklan tahun tahun lepas..

pukul 12.00 aku berhenti sekejap..tak elok menenung sampai berdengung otak aku..

pukul 12.30 aku mula balik dengan pr..WAH..berdegungnya...aku terpaksa tukar strategi..aku buka soklan soklan tahun tahun lepas pr..kemudian aku tengok slide lecturer, baca nota nota dia..lepas tu pegang buku pr lagi..berdengung gak..aku terpaksa cari jalan supaya boleh masuk ke dalam otak..aku cari topik topik yang boleh di google aku google lah apa dia pr roles..skill for pr cari cerita pasal bernay dan ivy lee..lepas tu pegang buku balik..boleh..aku terus baca sehingga kepala aku semakin sakit..mula mula sikit..kemudian tambah lagi..kemudian sah ..aku dah dapat migrain...berapa kali aku lap cermin mata..kabur gak..apa lagi..aku bangun sekali lagi..pergi ke bilik air..cuci muka lagi..

duduk balik..pegang buku balik..dak pukul 4.00..terus aku shutdown komputer...kemudian..aku simpan semua buku aku dalam beg..aku gi belek buku buku kat rak rak..yang langsung tak ada kena mengena dengan subjek aku...ada buku baru..buku pasal tasauf..dan kemudian tengok pulak pasal child psychology..tak boleh dah...dah sakit sangat migrain..dah kul 4.20..aku call suami aku..rupanya dah sampai pun dia kat library..dia pergi solah dulu kata dia..

aku pun turun..tunggu Pang5..wah ada orang jual baju dan jubah kat depan cafetaria...tapi tu lah..aku dah pun sediakan baju sedondon sekeluarga..dah siap pun..belek belek jap..suami pun dah siap solat..balik lah..

punya lah panas hari ini..12 Ramadhan 1429..terbakar belakang aku dengan matahari..aku pulak pantang dengan matahari..mau terlelap je..suami aku di gegarnya motor supaya aku terjaga...
lah...baru nak terlayang kata aku..he he he..mau jatoh kut..aku..

sesampai jer rumah..terus aku tangkap baring dulu...pukul 6.00 pm suami ajak pulak pergi ke pasar ramadhan...

tu lah lebih kurang..apa yang terjadi pada aku hari ini...

Thursday, September 11, 2008

Whatever will be..

There is some balance of time that I definitely know is not enough to prepare for the mid term test.

God willing, i felt calmer, whatever will be will be...

Good luck to the rest.

Friday, September 5, 2008


Siapa yang tak resah kalau kurang 10 hari nak menghadapi mid term test. Pulak kalau orang tu tak buat banyak persediaan.

Aku tak tahu nak cakap apa tapi itulah aku.

Yang tengah resah gelisah di sebabkan belum banyak persediaan dan mahukan lulus dengan cemerlang.

Entah lah..sejak kebelakangan ini aku makin menyepikan diri dari menatap buku atau pun berfikir.

Apakah kebelakangan ini dengan berbagai peristiwa aku mula pudar harapan..


Thursday, September 4, 2008

Hari Ini

Pagi pagi berperang lagi tinggi suara Pang5, makin tinggi suaraku, mengalah Pang5, keluar terus dari bilik, kalau dah memang berkeras, buang masa nak mencari penyelesaian.

Terduduk aku yang baru sahaja lepas membaca alquran, bukan perangai aku suka bertelingkah, setelah Pang5 keluar dari bilik, aku juga terduduk mengenangkan kelancangan mulut ku di bulan ramadhan yang mulia ini, sepatutnya aku patut berfikir dan berbincang, memang aku cepat naik darah, buang masa bertelingkah kata Pang5, tapi Pang5 tahu sangat perangai aku, di biarkan aku sendiri berfikir, aku sendiri akan menyelesaikan masalah dan selalunya begitu.

Aku capai semula alquran, baca lagi, dan baca lagi, dan berdoa di beri petunjuk. Entah kenapa tiba tiba aku berfikir , bertenang dan kemudian dapat mencapai penyelesaian, cepat cepat keluar bilik, cari Kekasihku si Pang5.

Ada, sedang mengurut ayahku, kemudian di sapu minyak panas di badan ayahku, ayahku yang di mandikan suami aku setiap hari sebelum ke pejabat. Apabila dia duduk di kerusi besar di ruang tengah, cepat cepat aku capai tangannya dan ku cium. Pang5 merenung, tunggu apa yang akan aku katakan seterusnya. dia tahu aku tak suka meminta maaf, kalau aku memohon maaf, cepat cepat di maafkannya, tapi kali ini tidak, aku tidak memohon maaf tapi, aku tak mahu dia marah pada ku, kata ku, Abang, ini lah sifat aku, sudah 23 tahun kau kenali aku, begini lah aku, marah di bibir di hati jarang sekali.

Dia mengusap kepalaku, kemudian di biar aku menghimpit dirinya yang makin terkepit di tepi kerusi.

Kali ini dia tahu, aku berkeras tak mahu mengalah, dia biarkannya.

Dia berbicara dengan lembut, "Ayang fikirkan lah sendiri".

Kerana kelembutannya aku berfikir sekali lagi. Maka aku pun mengalah. Dia tahu, dalam cahaya mata ku yang makin tenang aku sedang berfikir dengan lebih waras.

Wednesday, September 3, 2008

Apa apa lah

Blog ini pelepas resah, maunya aku tak resah, dah 2 malam aku tak pergi sunnah tarawikh, dan sepatutnya aku menghabiskan segala tugasan yang patut di hantar ahad ini, aduh, kenapa aku malas bebenar, aku sendiri pun tak tahu.

malas malas malas..

setakat ini itu sahaja yang aku mengerti tentang diri aku...

malas pegang buku

malas pegang komputer

malas duduk berfikir

yang sedap sedap..berbaring dan terus lelap hingga esok pagi


macam mana ini..

tolong lah

aku melemaskan diri sendiri namun bila di sahut anak ku..mama..oh mama...buka lah pintu..

mama oh nak tanya sikit..boleh ke baby masuk...sapa baby nak tanya semua marah baby

aku pun pulang berpijak di lantai yang nyata..

Tuesday, September 2, 2008

Syukur Alhamdulillah

Ya allah,

Syukur alhamdulillah, Doktor yang salah, anak ku sudah pun pandai bersolah, menitis airmata, Doktor kata anak ku mungkin buta, tidak jugak, pekak, mungkin sebelah sahaja, cacat akal..langsung tak ada..mungkin dia lambat tapi tidak cacat...dia sudah pun pandai bersolat..