Friday, November 7, 2008

Chapter 7 - 10 (last test 8 Nov 08) - closed for 2nd Semester

Chapter 7 - Linguistic Diversity & Intercultural Communication


Defining Communication - Meaning to share with or to make common as in giving to another a part or share of your thoughts, hopes and knowledge.

Communication is an element of culture.

Communication and culture is inseparable.

Communication can only be understood with an understanding of the culture its support.

For chapter seven it will covers. (Puan Shahnil Slides presentation)

1 Language

2 Significance of Verbal

3 Non verbal Communication

4 Realities of Verbal

5 Realities of Non Verbal

6 Devoloping skills with linguistic diversity

1 Language

Language functions not only to report information but actually to shape our perceptions of reality - Benjamin Whorf

a - part of identity of people

b - Has its meaning which are highly related to cultural factors

c - Powerful tools to shape and influence the lives of its cultural people (its members)

d Influence - social attitudes towards the speaker

e - Shape and mold our perception of reality

Intercultural encounters are not only influenced by language and perceptual differences and language choice based on restricted and elaborated social situations but also on language and how its translated for members of a cuhlture.

Significance of Verbal and Non Verbal

blend verbal and nonverbal to best convey a meaning

Nonverbal significance

- accent - Bang table high pitch note voice

- complement eg smile or shake your head

- contradict - wink to indicate you are lying

- regulate - make hand movements

- repeat - with your hands or head

substitute - signal with hands or head

Realities (Verbal and Non Verbal)

- meanings are in people

- meanings are more than words and gestures

- meanings are unique

- meanings are both denotative and connotative (tersurat and tersirat)

- meanings are context based

Developing skills with linguistic diversity (8)

- listen for unintentional meanings

- listen for emotional meanings

- ask for and offer clarification

- give benefit of doubt

- meet people on their cognitive (thingking) territory

- learn greetings

- speak considerately

- do not give up

- learn when to be direct or indirect

Chapter 8

Nonverbal Intercultural Communication (NVC)

- actions - intentionally used (consciously sent and received) and potential for a feedback

- non spoken symbol to communicate a specific message

Conveyed meaning non verbally (what meanings ?)

- interactions to express (liking (facial), status (gesture, touch) responsiveness (degree in involvement interaction)

- emotional expression

- clarify verbal messages (to emphasize (repeat, contradict, substitute, complement)

Knowing culture

- some nonverbal messages can be clearly identified a culture eg - thumb , touch

Cultural Universals

- consistent patters across culture eg - should shrugs , angkat bahu (do no lah tu)

- facial expressions (masam, sedih, senyum - universal)

Aspects of Non Verbal communication (NVC)

- body language (body movement) - (kinesics)

- facial communication

- eye communication

- touch communication

- space and distance (proxemics)

- time (chronemics)

- voice (paralanguage)

- silence

- handshakes

Chapter 9

Intercultural Communication Competencies & Adapting to Culture

( openness to differences and knowledge)

Basics of Intercultural Competence (8)

- Display of respect

- orientation to knowledge

- empathy

- task role behaviour

- relational role behavior

- interaction management

- tolerance for ambiguity

- interaction posture

Effects of intercultural competence

- to improve interpersonal interaction

- facilitate the development

Obstacles to intercultural competence (5)

- ethnocentricsm

- stereotyping

- prejudice

- discrimination

- racism

Chapter 10

Culture, Communication and Conflict

The Nature of conflicts are (4)

- different goals, allocation of resources, decisions or appropriate behaviours

Conflicts in InterCultural (4)

- can be internal or external, different context and leves (high and low context), (different context)

- Interdependent people face differences in views, values, interests, responsibilities amd perceive differences as INCOMPATIBLE (different types)

- different aspects of issues (between people/different culture/ethnic/groups/society) (different issues)

- Different level of conflicts - Interpersonal conflicts, political, social, international (different level)

Characteristics (3)

- Ambiguity (unclear)

- Languages

- Contradictory (different culture express disagreement differently)

Types of Conflict (4)

1- Relationship conflicts

2- Data Conflicts

3- Structural Conflicts

4- Value of Conflicts

Cultural influence on Conflict Management (2) (from book - Dodd)

- Using Communication

- Using Leadership Style

(Communication and attitudes have implications for personal styles of resolving conflict in what researchers refers to as "balance theory".)

Developing skills in reducing conflict (7)

- Avoid emotional persentations (jangan emo ler)

- deal with one issue at a time (satu satu ler selesaikan masalah)

- do not insist your own way ( kalau orang tak terima pendapat awak..jangan paksa orang)

- be clear and direct (jangan lah pulak nak berpantun bersyair pulak..kang lain tafsirnyer)

- admit error openly (mengaku lah kalau dah buat silap secara terbuka)

- look for methods to resolve problems (suggest a method..kalau tak leh cam gini ..can ginun)

- develop a positive communication climate (tengah marah ..tak yah lah bawak bincang)

(habis dah chapter 10)

boleh lah tidur..

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